8 Aralık 2015 Salı

Linux Paket Yöneticileri Karşılaştırması

Linux'ta program kurmak için paket yöneticisi adlı programlar kullanılır. Bazen penceredirler, bazen uçbirimdedirler, bazen de her ikisidirler. Bu yazımda uçbirimden çalışanları derledim.





Eylem Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu
Ad(lar)ı yazılan paket(ler)i indir pacman -S dnf install apt-get install
Ad(lar)ı yazılan paket(ler)i kaldır pacman -Rs dnf remove apt-get autoremove
Paket arama pacman -Ss dnf search apt-cache search
Paketler güncelle - eski sürümü kurulu olan paketlerin yeni sürümünü kur pacman -Syu dnf upgrade apt-get update; apt-get upgrade
Upgrade Packages - Another form of the update command, which can perform more complex updates -- like distribution upgrades. When the usual update command will omit package updates, which include changes in dependencies, this command can perform those updates. pacman -Syu dnf distro-sync apt-get dist-upgrade
Reinstall given Package - Will reinstall the given package without dependency hassle. pacman -S dnf reinstall apt-get install --reinstall
Installs local package file, e.g. app.rpm and uses the installation sources to resolve dependencies pacman -U dnf install dpkg -i && apt-get install -f
Updates package(s) with local packages and uses the installation sources to resolve dependencies pacman -U dnf upgrade debi
Use some magic to fix broken dependencies in a system pacman dep level - testdb, shared lib level - findbrokenpkgs or lddd dnf repoquery --unsatisfied apt-get --fix-broken
aptitude install
Only downloads the given package(s) without unpacking or installing them pacman -Sw dnf download apt-get install --download-only (into the package cache)
apt-get download (bypass the package cache)
Remove dependencies that are no longer needed, because e.g. the package which needed the dependencies was removed. pacman -Qdtq | pacman -Rs - dnf autoremove apt-get autoremove
Downloads the corresponding source package(s) to the given package name(s) Use ABS && makepkg -o dnf download --source apt-get source / debcheckout
Remove packages no longer included in any repositories.
package-cleanup --orphans aptitude purge '~o'
Install/Remove packages to satisfy build-dependencies. Uses information in the source package. automatic dnf builddep apt-get build-dep
Add a package lock rule to keep its current state from being changed /etc/pacman.conf
modify IgnorePkg array
dnf.conf <--”exclude” option (add/amend) apt-mark hold pkg
Delete a package lock rule remove package from IgnorePkg line in /etc/pacman.conf
apt-mark unhold pkg
Show a listing of all lock rules cat /etc/pacman.conf
/etc/apt/preferences
Add a checkpoint to the package system for later rollback
(unnecessary, done on every transaction)
Remove a checkpoint from the system N/A N/A
Provide a list of all system checkpoints N/A dnf history list
Rolls entire packages back to a certain date or checkpoint. N/A dnf history rollback
Undo a single specified transaction. N/A dnf history undo
Mark a package previously installed as a dependency as explicitly required. pacman -D --asexplicit
apt-mark manual
Install package(s) as dependency / without marking as explicitly required. pacman -S --asdeps
aptitude install 'pkg&M'




Package information management


Get a dump of the whole system information - Prints, Saves or similar the current state of the package management system. Preferred output is text or XML. (Note: Why either-or here? No tool offers the option to choose the output format.) (see /var/lib/pacman/local) (see /var/lib/rpm/Packages) apt-cache stats
Show all or most information about a package. The tools' verbosity for the default command vary. But with options, the tools are on par with each other. pacman -[S|Q]i dnf list, dnf info apt-cache show / apt-cache policy
Search for package(s) by searching the expression in name, description, short description. What exact fields are being searched by default varies in each tool. Mostly options bring tools on par. pacman -Ss dnf search apt-cache search
Display changelogs

apt-get changelog
e-mail delivery of package changes

apt-get install apt-listchanges
Lists packages which have an update available. Note: Some provide special commands to limit the output to certain installation sources, others use options. pacman -Qu dnf list updates, dnf check-update apt-get upgrade -> n
Display a list of all packages in all installation sources that are handled by the packages management. Some tools provide options or additional commands to limit the output to a specific installation source. pacman -Sl dnf list available apt-cache dumpavail apt-cache dump (Cache only) apt-cache pkgnames
Displays packages which provide the given exp. aka reverse provides. Mainly a shortcut to search a specific field. Other tools might offer this functionality through the search command. pkgfile <filename> dnf provides apt-file search <filename>
Display packages which require X to be installed, aka show reverse/ dependencies. pacman -Sii dnf provides apt-cache rdepends / aptitude search ~Dpattern
Display packages which conflict with given expression (often package). Search can be used as well to mimic this function.
repoquery --whatconflicts aptitude search '~Cpattern'
List all packages which are required for the given package, aka show dependencies. pacman -[S|Q]i dnf repoquery --requires apt-cache depends / apt-cache show
List what the current package provides
dnf provides dpkg -s / aptitude show
List the files that the package holds. Again, this functionality can be mimicked by other more complex commands. pacman -Ql $pkgname
pkgfile -l
dnf repoquery -l $pkgname dpkg-query -L $pkgname
List all packages that require a particular package
repoquery --whatrequires [--recursive] aptitude search \~D{depends,recommends,suggests}:pattern / aptitude why pkg
Search all packages to find the one which holds the specified file. auto-apt is using this functionality. pkgfile -s dnf provides apt-file search
Display all packages that the specified packages obsoletes.
dnf list obsoletes apt-cache show
Verify dependencies of the complete system. Used if installation process was forcefully killed. testdb dnf repoquery --requires apt-get check
Generates a list of installed packages pacman -Q dnf list installed dpkg --list | grep ^i
List packages that are installed but are not available in any installation source (anymore). pacman -Qm dnf list extras deborphan
List packages that were recently added to one of the installation sources, i.e. which are new to it. (none) dnf list recent aptitude search '~N' / aptitude forget-new
Show a log of actions taken by the software management. cat /var/log/pacman.log dnf history cat /var/log/dpkg.log
Clean up all local caches. Options might limit what is actually cleaned. Autoclean removes only unneeded, obsolete information. pacman -Sc
pacman -Scc
dnf clean all apt-get clean / apt-get autoclean / aptitude clean
Add a local package to the local package cache mostly for debugging purposes. cp $pkgname /var/cache/pacman/pkg/
apt-cache add
Display the source package to the given package name(s)
repoquery -s apt-cache showsrc
Generates an output suitable for processing with dotty for the given package(s).

apt-cache dotty
Set the priority of the given package to avoid upgrade, force downgrade or to overwrite any default behavior. Can also be used to prefer a package version from a certain installation source. ${EDITOR} /etc/pacman.conf
Modify HoldPkg and/or IgnorePkg arrays

/etc/apt/preferences, apt-cache policy
Remove a previously set priority

/etc/apt/preferences
Show a list of set priorities.

apt-cache policy /etc/apt/preferences
Ignores problems that priorities may trigger.










Installation sources management ${EDITOR} /etc/pacman.conf ${EDITOR} /etc/yum.repos.d/${REPO}.repo ${EDITOR} /etc/apt/sources.list
Add an installation source to the system. Some tools provide additional commands for certain sources, others allow all types of source URI for the add command. Again others, like apt and dnf force editing a sources list. apt-cdrom is a special command, which offers special options design for CDs/DVDs as source. /etc/pacman.conf /etc/yum.repos.d/*.repo apt-cdrom add
Refresh the information about the specified installation source(s) or all installation sources. pacman -Sy (always upgrade the whole system afterwards) dnf clean expire-cache && dnf check-update apt-get update
Prints a list of all installation sources including important information like URI, alias etc. cat /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist cat /etc/yum.repos.d/* apt-cache policy
Disable an installation source for an operation
dnf --disablerepo=
Download packages from a different version of the distribution than the one installed.
dnf --releasever= apt-get install -t release package/ apt-get install package/release (deps not covered)
Other commands


Start a shell to enter multiple commands in one session

apt-config shell








Package Verification


Single package pacman -Qk[k] <package> rpm -V <package> debsums
All packages pacman -Qk[k] rpm -Va debsums








Package Querying


List installed local packages along with version pacman -Q rpm -qa dpkg -l
Display local package information: Name, version, description, etc. pacman -Qi rpm -qi dpkg -s / aptitude show
Display remote package information: Name, version, description, etc. pacman -Si dnf info apt-cache show / aptitude show
Display files provided by local package pacman -Ql rpm -ql dpkg -L
Display files provided by a remote package pkgfile -l repoquery -l apt-file list pattern
Query the package which provides FILE pacman -Qo rpm -qf (installed only) or dnf provides (everything) dpkg -S / dlocate
Query a package supplied on the command line rather than an entry in the package management database pacman -Qp rpm -qp dpkg -I
Show the changelog of a package pacman -Qc rpm -q --changelog apt-get changelog
Search locally installed package for names or descriptions pacman -Qs rpm -qa '*<str>*' aptitude search '~i(~n name|~d description)'
List packages not required by any other package pacman -Qt package-cleanup --all --leaves deborphan -anp1




Building Packages


Build a package makepkg -s rpmbuild -ba (normal)
mock (in chroot)
debuild
Check for possible packaging issues namcap rpmlint lintian
List the contents of a package file pacman -Qpl <file> rpmls rpm -qpl dpkg -c
Extract a package tar -Jxvf rpm2cpio | cpio -vid dpkg-deb -x
Query a package supplied on the command line rather than an entry in the package management database pacman -Qp rpm -qp dpkg -I
Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu

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